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Känns det jobbigt att gå som katten runt het gröt, speciellt med tanke på att det bara är en sak du vill? Many European and Western societies have seen an expansion of the means to protect children. Cameron we have indications that this discourse is impacting also on the supposedly gender equal Utopia of Scandinavia. To understand touch in preschools it is important to grasp the globalization of this discourse, and in the paper we will relate the developments in Sweden and Scandinavia to the broader European context.

We will explore the impact of external and internal governance, i. The reserch questions which we investigate in on ongoing project are the following: B How have the local policies of Swedish day care centers and preschools in relation to physical interaction between teachers and students changed over time? C How do Swedish male and female preschool teachers with varying amounts of work experience reflect on touch as part of their work? For question C we conduct reflexive interviews Thomsson with female and male preschool teachers with varying amounts of work experience.

Most of the data for this study will be gathered during the spring of Therefore we cannot yet say that much about the results of the study.

The first was a self-disciplining position which men and women entered who felt anxieties that e. In the present paper, we will further develop this analysis.

Human contact in the classroom. Exploring how teachers talk about and negotiate touching students. Teaching and Teacher Education. Getting ready for Benjamin: Preparing teachers for sexual diversity in the classroom. Just a knock back? Identity bruising on the route to becoming a male primary school teacher. University of Ontago Press. British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. The im possibility of gay teachers for young children.

Theory Into Practice, Vol. On teachers as risky subjects. British Educational Research Journal, Vol. Appropriate touch in the primary classroom. Early Child Development and Care. The educational story of a panic. Förskolläraren — ett hot? The preschool teacher — a threat? During the last two decades, transnational organizations and agreements are increasingly important as actors, networks and shaping forces in curriculum-making, and this also applies to the formation of the Swedish curriculum.

However, several research studies reveal how the translation to national cultural education traditions also implies tensions and contradictions. Differences between different levels of curriculum has been theorized in for example distinctions between intended, implemented and enacted curricula Conelly With reference to Bernstein , the three different discursive levels can be related to each other, by the concept of recontextualisation.

The concept of recontextualisation — how meanings travel between contexts - addresses crucial assumptions of curriculum reform. First, it challenges an assumption of curriculum as a means for direct policy control and secondly, it challenges the assumption that larger global macro-social contexts have unmediated impact on the local context.

Recent debate in the field of curriculum studies suggests that centrally initiated curriculum change is unlikely to be successful unless it actively engages the practitioners who are the local change agents. In mediating curriculum reform, the intrinsic logic of the curriculum policy is significantly modified to match the institutional logics of the setting where it is enacted Meyer This paper draws upon empirical data to explore school-based curriculum development in response to the new curriculum policy, Lgr 11, in Sweden the National Agency for Education , Government Bill The purpose is to explore how the curriculum reform, Lgr 11, is reconceptualised, understood and related to school development by the local authority, school management and teachers in some selected municipalities.

By questionnaires and interviews with local curriculum actors, the contextual adaptations in order to manage and organise new curriculum policies are analysed. The following research questions are addressed in the paper: How, and with what arguments is the selection of content areas for curriculum development made in implementing the new curriculum Lgr 11?

What change and improvement strategies have been used to meet the demands of the new curriculum policy, Lgr 11? The mixed-method approach followed a three-step procedure. In the first step, nine local educational authorities were selected representing a broad variety of municipalities in terms of population sizes, socio-economic conditions and educational achievement levels.

Empirical data were collected by in a semi-structured questionnaire to key curriculum actors. In this, qualitative and explorative survey, key issues in implementing and adapting to the curriculum policy was identified.

Based on these answers four cases for further investigation were selected. In the second step, follow-up, in-depth interviews with four informants local authority development officers from different local education authorities were conducted. In the semi-structured interviews the strategies for curriculum innovation and change was further elaborated and conceptualised.

Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings The results of the empirical analysis question 1 and 2 will be presented in terms of patterns of arguments among key curriculum actors. The case studies show how different key players in local curriculum implementation raise arguments and prioritize areas for curriculum innovation variously due to local needs, national ambitions as well as international trends and future social and cultural scenarios.

The results of the case studies also highlight central features of how central curriculum actors navigate in local change processes under the enactment of the curriculum Lg11 question 2. The case studies indicate a wide variety of strategies used in trying to adapt and merge the local development work with external pressures on accountability.

The results points to some central dilemmas in steering, organizing and drive local curriculum innovation. In addition, the investigation of curriculum recontextualisation also highlights mismatches between the intrinsic logics of the curriculum policy and the institutional logics when it comes to describing, valuing and judging the outcomes of curriculum innovation question 3.

References Andersson-Levitt, Kathryn M. The Sage Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity. National Agency for Education. The New Meaning of Educational Change 3rd ed.

Tydliga mål och kunskapskrav i grundskolan. Proposal for a New System of Goals and Monitoring]. Swedish Government Official Reports. World models, National Curricula, and the Centrality of the Individual. School Knowledge in Comparative and Historical Perspective. Conceptualising curriculum knowledge within and beyond the national context.

Standards-based curricula in a denationalised conception of education — the case of Sweden. The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in the era of standard based policy reforms. Proposal information research question, theoretical framework so on words.

In the last two decades transnational organizations and agreements have become increasingly important as driving forces in the making of curriculum.

This also applies to the formation of Swedish curriculum policy discourses. Although these policies are transnational and nationally oriented, it is in the same time up to schools and teachers on the local level to interpret and enact the curriculum, in classrooms and in the interaction between teachers and students. This unarguably raises questions about the curriculum-in-use, i.

Therefore, the overall aim of this paper is to explore how a standards-based oriented curriculum, Lgr 11, is enacted at the local school level. In a first step, the process of the selection of teaching content will be studied.

A central question here is how and on what foundations the selection of teaching content is made when prescribed content and learning outcomes is given a central role in the curriculum structure?

Secondly — which relates to the selection of content — we examine how the same curriculum is achieved in teaching and learning practices at classroom level in terms of knowledge content. What content seems to dominate the teaching in favour for another under a standard-based oriented curriculum like Lgr 11?

This theoretical perspective puts the relationship between teaching processes, outcomes and external frame- factors in focus. In other words, to understand processes and outcomes in the teaching practice you have to, from this theoretical perspective, analyse the frame-factors, for example time, equipment, the composition of the class and of course the current curriculum, that in different ways enable and limit these processes and outcomes.

These knowledge conceptions will be used to identify and discuss different aspects of lesson content in the investigated teaching practice. With a classical curriculum theory framework, the present study focus on teaching and lesson content in terms of enacted and achieved curricula. This in turn links us to classic classroom studies addressed by e.

Bellack, Kliebard et al. The study is based on an extensive empirical material from six municipalities in Sweden and consists of three different sources. Firstly, semi-structured interviews with representatives from the local school authority, teachers, principals and students in grade 6 years old where the main focus has been their views on the impact of the curriculum for the compulsory school Lgr11 with particular attention on the organisation of teaching, the dominating content in teaching and the interaction between teacher and students and students and students.

Secondly, documents related to teaching such as local pedagogical plans, lesson plans, tests, work sheets, material produced by students and so on have been analysed. Thirdly, 71 lessons of teaching in the social studies subjects Civics, History, Geography, Religion have been video-recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed from organisation of teaching, content and the interaction in the classroom.

In the last section of the paper, we will discuss the empirical results in relation to our theoretical points of departure. Here we show how the Swedish curriculum in great extent is influenced by a standards-based tradition where both content and performance are put in the foreground. From a frame-factor theoretical perspective we then discuss the consequences on the possibilities for the teachers selecting content.

Besides struggling with the crowding of content teachers are under constant pressure to hold on to a tight schedule in order for the different curriculum tasks to fit into an over-arching plan for the whole semester.

Teachers indeed focus on central concepts deriving from academic disciplines foregrounded in the syllabuses, while they at the same time employ a strategy to patch subjects and their specific content together. The analysis of the video recorded lesson show that the general pattern of teaching comes in the shape of whole class teaching with the teacher as central actor.

Because the teacher has to ensure that all students get the ability to reach the knowledge requirements, the lesson content to a great extent is prescribed and comes in the shape of subject matter-oriented facts, concepts and competences.

The language of the classroom. Defining and theorizing school subjects. In connnelly, Michael Ed. Skoldifferentiering och undervisningsförlopp [School differentiation and teaching processes].

A study of pedagogical roles in the teaching process. Utbildningsdepartementet The Ministry of Education Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet Lgr In this article we will address the impact of Europeanization Lawn on national curriculum reforms with empirical reference to the Swedish compulsory school, and based on the concept of competence discuss the question of transnational curriculum convergence Andersson-Levitt The main interest is directed towards how the answers on the question of what counts as knowledge and skills are changing in national curricula.

The research questions of this article are: Theoretically we draw on discursive institutionalism Schmidt , using a differentiated concept of curriculum as a way to capture the complex dynamics of contemporary curriculum change. Central policy texts have been analyzed as simultaneously a written text, discourse practice that include text production and interpretation and socio-cultural and political practice Fairclough, Taken this methodological point of departure a step further the analysis has also combined a discursive institutionalism approach.

Processes of discourse formation in policy-making have been investigated as dialectical to processes of re-contextualisation and institutionalization of specific discourses.

A conclusion is that the recent Swedish compulsory school reform converges to the broader European knowledge discourse on the level of philosophical ideas underpinning curriculum change but that several core concepts used in European policy texts are being reconceptualised and given a different meaning when re-contextualised in the national arena.

Exploring new methodological approaches in the analysis of curriculum change is highly relevant as transnational discourses have an increasing impact on Nordic curriculum policy.

Auricles are ear-shaped material objects made of silicone rubber with a built-in MP3-player one can put on and off without changing the shape of the auricle. They will serve as instruments for research in a class of year olds and of their teacher for the period of one week. Each child and teacher will be given an Auricle, to use it as a confidential listening device in the classroom. The study is a follow-up study as the Auricles have been used in the years for 14 years old in four other countries in Germany Stuttgart and Berlin , Bulgaria Sofia , Finland Vaasa and Argentina Neuquen.

There are several publications on different topics like learning strategies, habitus, suffering in classroom lessons. As a material object the Auricle enables researchers to track the use, movement and interaction with the object over time. What goes on in classrooms is entangled with what does on in playgrounds, journeys to school, the home, and life around the home. In short, new methodological avenues for empirical research to explore the interface and entanglement of humans, non-human materialities, and spaces are opened up cp.

The most applied reference sciences in terms of formal education are the Curriculum Studies in the Anglo-American language area, and Didactics in the German-Scandinavian language area cp. Besides that there is, mostly in the French context, a tendency to strengthen rather the diverse disciplines of domain specific knowledge at the expense of pedagogy.

In this contribution I will argue for a perspective that came up within the Educational Sciences: In special, I will unfold the performativity-theoretical interpretation of a research on practices. Pedagogy is moreover ruled by resp. That is to say, e. The performative approach will serve to bring the individual and differentiating perspective into the practice research.

In my presentation I will compare take in perspectives from diverse methodical approaches to practices in order to cipher them out in their relationship of bodiliness, sociability and sociality.

The aim is thus to delineate a Research on Practices. Hereby, I will refer to the results of an empirical study on cultural formations in the playing of a five-year-old girl. Global processes are reshaping the education systems of the Western world Resnik Together with this comes the notion of accountability; the belief that teachers are to be held responsible for low standards among pupils Ingersoll Altogether, these trends influence national educational policy and trickle down to district and school levels.

In brief it allows accountable authorities to create, shape and appoint head teachers and as a consequence of this there is a great variety between the municipalities Skolverket The first teacher reform has introduced a new and formalised category of teachers concerned with issues involving educational leadership.

Educational leadership relies on interaction between school leaders and teachers Hultman ; Ludvigsson and previous research underlines both structural and cultural aspects in leadership as prerequisites for successful schools Ärlestig ; Törnsén My paper explores the implementation of the reform on local level by analysing policy documents and data from interviews with district administrators, principals and first teachers.

My work here is largely exploratory and suggestive where I seek to answer two main questions: In what ways does the emergence of first teachers effect the educational leadership of the principals? How do first teachers describe and understand their role in the organisation?

Preliminary results suggest that first teachers are resources in mentoring their colleagues and leading quality improvement, offering support for the principals as educational leaders by taking over processes related to collegial learning. However there is also a concern that first teachers lack legitimacy and the ability to question traditional teaching patterns for the improvement of teaching.

The first teachers on their hand call for more guidance and clarity from the principals and district administrators regarding their assignments. The amount of meetings has increased and first teachers express that principals tend to move organisational issues tend to the first teachers. Most of all first teachers call for more time for their work. For some first teachers the relationship to colleagues have been strained and they experience that there are troubles to lead development processes due to envy and suspicion.

In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy e. The aim with this paper is instead to understand transnational policy texts from a cosmopolitan perspective. The purpose is two-fold: Both Nussbaum and Sen are seeking to create a space for understanding a sustainable quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be; their actual capabilities.

The result shows the centrality of the concept of reflection: The latter includes recognizing the relation between the well-known and the foreign, and a historical understanding of the teaching situation, the teachers find themselves in. Related concerns are found in the other Nordic countries, with the exception of Finland Nordic Council of Ministers In many of the problems described the good teacher is a prerequisite for improvement.

The state's public inquiry SOU Linnaeus University has, as one of two universities, been responsible for developing and trying out the suitability tests prior to admission in autumn The Linnaeus suitability tests were divided into three subtests regarding five content domains: A score was given for each of the five content domains.

The presentation outlines the experience gained so far based on applicants who have undergone the admittance test in , as well as on 75 already admitted teacher students who participated in the prior simulated testing sessions during their first month at university in RESEARCH AIM - The research aim addresses how students preacademic results on the five domains in the suitability tests relate to their early achievements in both theoretical and teacher practice courses in teacher education.

Admission test should give fair access to teacher education whilst justice also must include that future pupils are given access to the good teachers Childs et al, Previous studies has indicated that tests on written communication can predict academic success Hernandez et al, Previous studies show varying results regarding to what extent socially interactive elements in suitability testing can predict success in teacher practice courses Shechtman, ; Kosnik et al, Correlations are calculated for the relations between results of the five content domains in the suitability test.

FINDINGS - Will consist of a comparision of the results of Teacher Student on Linnaeus suitability tests compared with their results in early theoretical courses as well as in their first teacher training courses in teacher education. This study is part of a larger Swedish research project: In the presentation categories of indicators of failures, in nine cases of student teaching, are described and linked to a current issue in Sweden: The introduction of admission tests before entering the teacher education.

Based on interviews with supervisors and the visiting teachers from the university, empirical examples are presented in order to discuss the following issues: Do the examples contain possibilities to detect insufficient teacher quality before the student has entered the program? Can knowledge of such possibilities facilitate the selection of future teacher students?

The cases can be categorized into two groups: The informants expectations on that the students in the first group will be able to develop the necessary qualities and skills are low. The main difference between the two groups is the point of time when the deficiencies are detected. In the first group this happens immediately, while for the second group a pedagogical situation is required to spotlight their shortcomings.

The second major difference between the groups concerns the indicators of poor teacher quality. In both groups the students are apprehended as passive. This paper elaborates on the results of a qualitative study on heteronormativity and introduces a reflective seminar concept invented and designed for this purpose.

The model aims at facilitating students' ability to reflect on heteronormativity. Challenging their thinking about heteronormative practices, we asked students to use it and thereby reflect in three consecutive steps upon the impact of heterosexuality in educational situations. This indicates a lack of opportunities for students in to reflect. Addressing aspects of diversity such as sexual identities and orientations, we suggest that our reflective model is a very useful tool to promote reflective processes.

The concepts have been applied as analytical tools in a research study on the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden, and they may serve as an example of how different ideas, discourses and levels can be distinguished in research studies, thereby maintaining the complexity that is always built into the field of education policy and reform.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an on-going conceptual discussion of how to trace the influence of policy on different institutional arenas. European Commission , p. It is reasonable to say that there is a strong transnational policy pressure in European countries to focus on the role of the teacher and on student performance. What we know less about is how this pressure on the results and grades affect teachers' social environment in today's society marked by digital communications.

The  purpose  of this paper is thus to examine how perspectives of transactional realism and materialism can contribute to a more complete understanding of factors within and outside the institutional environment of school that form different but overlapping networks for teachers, potentially affecting their room for action. The  research question  we will explore in this paper is: What factors contribute to shape the relations constituting the social environment for the teacher in the task of grading, with the potential to affect her space of agency?

The sociologist Latour , p. The actor-network theory ANT examines how heterogeneous networks connects and manages to hold together, more or less temporarily, and enact economic, political and social phenomena or effects. As formulated within ANT, reality is enacted in practice: This also means that different objects, including human subjects, will take different form in different places and practices.

In this sense, grades and grading do not function as a representation of a fixed reality, or as different perspectives of a fixed reality, but as different realities enacted in different spaces, with different functions and consequences. We build on a narrative from an authentic interview in a Swedish newspaper in April, We use a fictive name of the teacher and call her Susan. Following the logic of ANT, we do not take the social as a given stable entity, but in accordance with Latour , p.

We therefore rather trace new associations, instead of looking for explanations by predetermined forces as social contexts or social factors.

In the paper we explore some of these forces experienced by the teacher Susan in her work with setting grades. Latour differentiate between two different means to produce the social: Intermediary transports meanings without translating or changing them in any way; the output is the same as the input. The analysis is conducted in the following way.

First the actors are identified in the interview with Susan. Once actors are identified we trace their various connections by asking questions about where the actors are placed, how connections are made possible or difficult, and of what is emphasized or obscured.

What actors enact as mediators, as translators, and what actors enact intermediary, that is, enacts as truths and matters of facts? Then we trace how the mediators change events and phenomena according to the interests and rationalities they represent. Moreover we identify the various spaces of networks where grades and grading are enacted in multiple shapes.

Considering these spaces, we pose questions about how the different spaces are linked together and how different actors change or move the limits of the spaces. In such a system, the means for the teachers to assess, evaluate, and grade students are directly affected by how well-rated and popular their schools are, as schools become dependent on the money each students bring to them with the voucher system. The purpose of the paper is to examine how perspectives of transactional realism and materialism can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of factors within and outside institutional environments that form different but overlapping networks for teachers, potentially affecting their room for action in different ways.

We explore the following two research questions: How can material aspects contribute to shed light on teachers' room for action? Unauthorized absence from school is a problem that has been increasingly noted by the National Agency for Education, county councils, communities, and media in Sweden.

There are elementary school students in Sweden who have not attended school for several years Springe , the phenomenon is found all over the world. There is an increased political interest in these questions worldwide, and most politicians emphasize school and the capacity to read and write as prerequisites for democracy Reid a.

At the same time, schooling is questioned. Research has shown that school and development do not necessarily go hand in hand and that schooling increases segregation, inequalities, class differences, and gender structure.

It is beyond the scope of this article to problematize schooling in this regard, but these school-related problems are entangled in several ways, and this question is returned to in the conclusion. It is well documented that failure in school and early dropout can have negative effects cf. Research indicates that the road to criminality, drug abuse, and social exclusion is open Nelson and Baldwin ; Henry, Thornberry, and Huizinga and that there is a straight line from truancy to dropout, youth crime, gang membership, teenage pregnancy, poor health, and reliance on social service Kronholz Truancy is a more pre-eminent risk predictor even compared to average grades, according to Hallfors et al.

The authors have recommended policies that assist young people who have taken missteps. Truancy can also be linked to high potential academically; students that are under-challenged at school Sälzer et al. There are many dimensions and perspectives in this study; the individual, institutional, organizational, societal. In a research review like this one, however, the illumination of the relation between research and development is a strong incentive and an object of the study.

In spring a community in Sweden sought out a researcher who could get to the root causes of the perceived local problem of unauthorized absence from schools. The questions raised in this community were how school absence could be prevented and attendance be stimulated through interventions in the school as well as in the local community. One part of this project was a review of research results focusing on prevention and attendance; this article presents the result of this research review.

What does research globally demonstrate about what schools and communities can do to stimulate attendance and to prevent unauthorized absence?

In Sweden, research in this field usually is catalogued under the keyword truancy, although different words are used in relation to the character of the absence. For example, in Sweden some students are called hallway ramblers: Others, called home sitters, choose the Internet at home playing, reading and learning whatever they want instead of a lesson at school Strandell In databases covering international research, the keywords mirror gradations from late arrival and scattered absenteeism to persistent truancy and dropouts.

This project builds on material catalogued under the keywords that proved to be most frequent: Generally, the phenomenon labelled unauthorized absence from compulsory school is an intentional and active decision to skip a lesson, a school day, or a period. A huge amount of research focusing on truancy builds on the view that the problem either originates with individual mentally, psychologically, or socially deficiency, or stems from individual factors, such as milieu, parents or guardians, and peers.

Research focusing on individuals, their deviations, and their risks has been excluded from this study studies searching for correlations between truancy and drugs, truancy and sexuality, truancy and early pregnancies, truancy and criminality, etc.

The ambition in this study has been to examine research that focuses on prevention and attendance. This research field has apparently been given much less priority. The sample, greatly narrowed down for inspection, contains peer-reviewed research articles collected from around the globe, represents geographical, cultural, social, and demographic differences, but the similarities outweigh these differences. The research examined has been published in the 21st century.

It contains a large number of meta-analyses and some meta-meta-analyses. The sample, with few exceptions, represents extended quantitative studies and evidence-based research. This means that the material covers much more research and a longer time span than expected.

Research today indicates that school must have meaning for the individual cf. Englund and that school needs to challenge students cf. Individuals who absent themselves experience schoolwork as meaningless, entailing no challenges, and react to it.

Truancy is resistance and a demonstration against traditional school culture, class reproduction, and bad treatment. These students are questioning the legitimacy of the educational system Zhang First, changes on all levels are needed to update schools and develop a positive school culture: Second, students need adults to bond with - adults who care for, listen to, respect, and engage both socially and educationally. Third, core competencies are a prerequisite for all learning; self-reflection, attitudes and communication skills.

If core competencies are encouraged, they will transform enhanced learning outcomes and reinforce schoolwork. And it is possible to learn the ability to bounce back cf. This study does not reveal anything about schools in real life. Perhaps it is a good guess that if a study of real-life interventions in schools had been conducted, it would have resulted in a picture of counting, more regulations and disciplinary restrictions - a reality that accords with the new public-management era cf.

Ball , Ball and contemporary politics in the governing-by-numbers discourse cf. Lawn and Grek This contrasts with everything we know from decades of research and recommendations. A personal review of recent education policy and policy research. Reclaiming a language for education in an age of learning.

A synthesis of meta-analyses. Knight, and Terence P. The Truant Problem and the Parental School. Practical Resources for All School Managers. The importance of distinguishing between different aspects of instructional quality. In educational research, educational policy is often discussed in terms of events, time and space connected to international and national arenas e. In this paper, the contextualization of policy is instead the local arena.

The study can be viewed as a response to two of the questions posed at the website of NW More specifically, the aim is to explore how policy rationality embedded in the structure and content of curriculum transforms into a specific rationality of classroom teaching.

The research questions are: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of education policy codified through curriculum? What different rationalities, linked to education policy as enacted in curriculum, may underlie certain patterns of teaching repertoires? Situated at the boundary between Liberal Arts and diverse scientific approaches, artistic research has been developed within the last few years in terms of admitting various forms of knowledge acquisition.

My presentation will deal with a film project which is actually not meant to be artistic research: The resulting filmed sequences are determined by the field of vision and by the head movements of the participants. The scenes are therefore supposed to present an approximation of the authentic view-point of the performer. They follow up the subjective awarenes s  of a path determined by the actions and reactions, personal customs and interests of each of the acting persons. Also unplanned events, chance encounters and the urban environment are written into the film.

I argue that this kind of data can be interpreted in terms of and as an answer to methodological and methodical challenges the Children´s Studies have faced since they arose about 30 years ago. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass die kulturellen Wissensbestände, an denen alltägliche Handlungserwartungen und -ketten orientiert sind, auf alltägliche Interaktionen zurückzuführen sind. Aus diesen emergierten sie, von diesen her differenzierten sie sich aus und verfestigten sich.

Im Blickpunkt einer sich an diese Auslegung anschließenden sog. Praktikenforschung stehen die Teilnahme und die Teilhabe der Akteure an sozialen Praktiken und an deren bspw. Praktiken, so stellt Thomas Alkemeyer Ein handelndes Individuum klinke sich in ein bestehendes Handlungsgeschehen gewissermaßen ein.

Das Forschungsinteresse einer so verstandenen Praktikenforschung gilt der Frage, wie das Bezugsgewebe von Handeln in Praktiken zum Vorschein und ins Spiel kommt. Dieser auch für die empirische Erziehungswissenschaft hochrelevante Forschungsansatz lässt sich vor dem Hintergrund der leibphänomenologischen Theoriebildung weiter ausarbeiten.

Zugleich wird eine solche Konstitution an körperlich vermittelte Prozesse geknüpft. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass diese Formierungen in unserem Handeln nur teilweise sichtbar werden. Gegenstand meiner Präsentation ist die nähere Erläuterung der leibphänomenologischen Konzeption des Verhältnisses von Leiblichkeit und Sozialität in Hinblick auf eine leibphänomenologisch fundierte Praktikenforschung in theoretischer Hinsicht, sowie ein Vorschlag zu deren Weiterentwicklung auf der Grundlage der Anlage einer empirischen Studie.

Collins , 27 zit. Christina Lutter, Markus Reisenleitner Hg. Diskurse entwickelten sich sowohl kollektiv als auch in der Einzelperson und sie seien mit sozialen In- und Exklusionen verbunden. Diskurse sind nach Foucault weitgehend unpersönliche Prozesse der Meinungsbildung und die Grundlage für alles, was wir für richtig, für vernünftig und für wahr halten.

Diskurse als Formen der sozialen Kontrolle sowie als soziale Anforderungen und Normierungen leiteten uns nicht nur kognitiv, sondern sie schrieben sich auch in die menschliche Körperlichkeit ein. Auf der einen Seite, so der erste Leitgedanke dieses Beitrags, bietet Foucaults unpersönlich verstandener Diskursbegriff die Möglichkeit, die Erfahrungswelt eines sexuell missbrauchten Kindes im Lebenslauf ein stückweit theoretisch zu fassen. Auf der anderen Seite stellt Foucault aber zu Altersspezifika und zu Leidensverläufen und -qualitäten keinerlei Überlegungen an, die jedoch bei sexuellem Missbrauch in pädagogischen Zusammenhängen eine wichtige Rolle spielen.

Um sie theoretisch in den Blick zu bekommen, müssen zu Foucaults diskurstheorischer Bestimmung menschlicher Körperlichkeit weitere Erklärungsansätze hinzutreten. Solche finden sich bspw. In der Zusammenführung und kritischen Gegenüberstellung der beiden Erklärungsstränge wird es möglich, die Veränderung der Diskursivität und der Sexualität im Lebenslauf zu konzipieren und vor dieser Folie den sexuellen Missbrauch von Kindern und dessen Folgen auch unter dem Gesichtspunkt des damit verbundenen Leidens auszulegen.

Here focus is placed on the collective action repertoire as expressed by two different groups of leisure-time pedagogues. The research questions addressed are:. What communities do they identify? Consequently, within this thesis relationships are viewed as mainly negotiated and are therefore dynamic in character. The study is based on data derived from eight leisure-time pedagogues divided into two different work teams of four pedagogues, covering two different leisure-time centres and involving 60 children of years of age.

Results suggest that the communities of practice and the alliances that pedagogues identify are often gender-related and built on common interests. Leisure-time pedagogues support relationships characterized by consensus, respect, confidence and adaptation to rules, whereas those marked by conflict, disharmony, breaking rules or aggressions are counteracted.

Some children are described as relationally competent while other children, who do not adapt themselves in a desirable manner, are described as having difficulties adjusting their relational competence. Thus, the study´s methodological foundation is characterised by a combination of a context-sensitive comparative approach on the one hand, and on the other hand a pragmatist Grounded Theory approach.

Data were mainly generated through focus group interviews with pupils attending the last year of the lower secondary level in the Swedish comprehensive school as well as in different school types in the German school system. In total, the sample consists of 95 pupils, who were interviewed in 21 focus group interviews. The second shed light on the contextual conditions and consequences of the logics and practices underlying educational assessment as experienced by pupils on an everyday basis.

Knowledge about these relations in pre-primary education in Tanzania is largely lacking. The study was inspired by Vygotskian socio-cultural framework and its allied activity theory. Twenty one pre-primary teachers participated in the study. Of these, 3 were males and 18 were females. Of the participants, six had primary teacher education background whereas two had attended a 1 year pre-school training course.

Empirical materials were generated over a period of six months through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, post observation video-stimulated interviews, and content analysis of lesson plans and curriculum. Abductive analytical approach and hermeneutic phenomenology informed data analysis and interpretations, respectively. To help pupils with such experiences teachers cited strategies like supplemental instruction, within-class mixing, retention, and ability grouping.

Though there were concerns, teachers have a feeling of on-going and summative assessment of reading progress. The study recommends for on-going teacher in-service training to provide teachers with the opportunities to reflect on their beliefs and practices in relation to curriculum intentions. The study also indicates a need to review the curriculum intentions, supportive environment and efforts aiming at addressing contextual factors which interrupt teaching.

Through interviews that have generated the empirical material, the work enjoyment of nineteen teachers is focused on and analyzed from a phenomenological lifeworld approach. The themes include Supporting meanings, which are mood, power source and presence awareness, as well as Widening meanings, which are context and connectedness, rhythm and balance, opening and after heat.

In the second part of the result the meanings of the phenomenon are interpreted further and conclusions are drawn. Enjoyment of work is fundamental; i. The experience of joy also means opening and involves an expectant foreshadowing.

Based on a safe floor, teachers can open up to different options of how to be or to act. Joy as opening extends across time and space through the longing and hope that it is connected to. In times of struggle, joy enables teachers to find their way back to what is meaningful in their work. Emotional responsiveness is enjoyment of work; it makes the teachers relate to their work with openness and insight.

Such responsiveness contributes with sensitivity to the whole classroom situation and towards what is essential in their work, and shows how the emotional and the rational are intertwined. Vad är pedagogik idag? Var befinner sig ämnet och forskningen och hur har dess utveckling sett ut? Finns det egentligen ett ämne som kan kallas pedagogik? Är det i så fall ett universellt, nationellt eller lokalt projekt att bygga? Har inte ämnet också sönderdelats i ett oräkneligt antal mindre beståndsdelar som gör själva etiketten förlegad och omöjlig?

Hur förhåller sig pedagogik till andra beteckningar som utbildningsvetenskap, pedagogiskt arbete, didaktik? Vilket bidrag kan studier och kunskap i pedagogik ge?

Varför skulle pedagogik vara ett akademiskt ämne? På vilket sätt bidrar pedagogik som vetenskap till att utveckla utbildning och skola, undervisning och lärande? Vad bör pedagogisk forskning bidra till när det gäller de utmaningar som skola och utbildning står inför med ökande ojämlikhet, orättvisa och social utslagning?

Frågorna om pedagogikens innebörd, roll och betydelse är många. Tyvärr är försöken att lämna de många åsikter som florerar och i stället gå till botten med hållbara svar rätt sällsynta. Här vill jag bara, utan anspråk på slutgiltighet eller fullständighet, försöka ge en bild och analys av pedagogikens position idag och mot en sådan bakgrund ge ett argument och förslag till utveckling framgent[1]. Det finns naturligtvis inte utrymme här för att göra full rättvisa åt en så mångfasetterad fråga som pedagogikens paradigmatiska grunder, utan framställningen blir med nödvändighet selektiv.

Dock, hoppas jag, selektiv på goda grunder. Jag har också försökt att lägga in förslag på litteratur för den som vill fördjupa sig ytterligare. Pedagogiken har en praktisk sida och en teoretisk. De båda sidorna förutsätter varandra, men här kommer jag företrädesvis ägna mig åt den teoretiska. Min tes är att pedagogik som praktik behöver kvalificeras av en systematisk teoretisk reflektion.

Modernitetens store kunskapsarkitekt René Descartes hade alltså fel. Det finns ingen anledning till att välja antingen teori eller praktik.

Pedagogik som teori behöver kvalificeras av ett klokt pedagogiskt praktiskt omdöme. Pedagogikens teorier har uppgiften att förstå, förklara och på så sätt också fungera som begreppsliga kartor, språkliga gränsdragningar och navigeringshjälp för pedagogiska verksamheter och praktiker av olika slag.

Då pedagogik rör hela människan och utgör en grundläggande mellanmänsklig aktivitet måste också det pedagogiska studiet ta in kunskap om människan och samhället i dess konkreta sammanhang. Hur kan en pedagogisk teori på en praktisk grund byggas? I denna framställning kommer jag att avgränsa mig till att behandla denna fråga med fokus riktat mot politiskt styrda utbildningsinstitutioner med gemensamma överenskomna uppdrag att realisera pedagogiska strävanden, syften och mål[2].

Ett centralt tema genom texten är att försöka analysera de pedagogiska kunskaperna i en samtida senmodern kontext och att utforska olika vägar för den pedagogiska teoribildningen att röra sig förbi en tilltagande fragmentisering. I texten kommer jag först att ta upp tre yttre villkor för pedagogisk teoribildning vetenskaps- och kunskapssociologiska aspekter av de pedagogiska vetenskapernas geografi och diskutera tre fallgropar i den samtida utvecklingen. I den avslutande delen kommer jag på basis av anförd analys dra tre konklusioner om pedagogikens uppgifter och adressera fyra utmaningar i en samtida senmodern tid.

Avsikten med texten är att ge en introduktion till ämnet för studerande, d. Framställningens empiriska underlag utgörs huvudsakligen av utvärderingarna av pedagogik och det pedagogiska ämnesområdet pedagogiskt arbete, didaktik, utbildningsvetenskap, musikpedagogik etc. Det betyder att jag i texten inte kommer att beröra pedagogiska frågor och fenomen utanför de formella och etablerade utbildningsinstitutionerna. Jag ser emellertid inte några skäl att exkludera andra kontexter i en ämnesdefinition.

The general intention with the follow-up study is to shed light on the contract education program of the FoU Lic and on the academic supervision out of the perspectives of the five Licentiate candidates.

The focus is on their implicit knowledge, explicated as their habitus towards participating in the academic world as research students and, at the same time, professionally working in the field that is as well the field of their scientific interest as that of political interests and social demands. I föreliggande rapport analyseras policyinitiativ kring forskningsbasering av skolan de två senaste decennierna. Genomgången är disponerad efter fyra olika modeller och strategier som identifierats i forskningslitteraturen.

Utifråndessa fyra grundläggande modeller synliggörs motiv, idéer och frågeställningar som ligger bakom försöken attnärma skolan och forskningen de senaste 20 åren. Resultaten pekar på att utvecklingen gått i riktning mot merdirekta försök att koppla skol- och undervisningspraktiker och de pedagogiskt yrkesverksammas aktivakonsumtion av utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning.

I det avslutande kapitlet sammanfattas de viktigasteslutsatserna kring resultaten för Skolforskningsinstitutets vidkommande. Denna teoribaserade utvärdering presenterar en undersökning av den senaste läroplansreformen för grundskolan i Sverige, Läroplan för grundskolan, för­skoleklassen och fritidshemmet Lgr  Syftet med utvärderingen är att bidra med ny kunskap om läroplansreformer genom att samtidigt beakta in­flytandet från transnationella utbildningspolitiska policyrörelser, betydelsen av tidigare svenska läroplansreformer samt den påverkan som reformen får för lärare vad gäller deras sätt att organisera undervisningen och att bedöma ele­vers kunskapsutveckling.

Utvärderingen visar på en grundläggande förskjut­ning i läroplanens konstruktion som kan hänföras till ett transnationellt in­flytande i termer av standardsbaserade läroplaner som utmärks av en tydlig sammanlänkning mellan mål, innehåll och resultat.

Enligt informanterna i undersökningen påverkar läroplanen hur lärare uppfattar sitt professionella uppdrag samt hur de väljer ut innehåll och ställer krav på kunskapsnivåer.

Sam­mantaget visar utvärderingen att läroplanen påverkar såväl lärares val av under­visningsformer som deras arbete med bedömning och betygssättning. In this report I present some of the things I learned there about higher education. OSU is a huge university that was founded in OSU offers everything a student could wish for, including not only an extraordinary number of courses but also a wide array of interesting clubs, and centers.

My experiences at OSU to some extent focused on the Department of Teaching and Learning but were not limited to that context. Below, I present reflections related to three aspects of campus life: There are many clubs in which students can engage with one another outside their classes, and these clubs focus on specific topics and activities.

The relationship between students and teachers is usually relaxed, and I noted that teachers often explicitly expressed their expectations to students. Service includes administration, meetings, and various kinds of work, such as peer-review tasks and course planning.

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